In William Shakespeare's tragedy, "Othello," there is
what religion does Othello
Desdemona says directly:
heaven, you do me wrong.
as I am a Christian!
But here the frank and honest Othello is
hiding something. It is considered that he, a black-skinned Moor, is a Moslem
or at least descendent of Moslems. And if one is to follow the traditional
history, then there really is no other variant.
Othello, before he ends his life in suicide,
. . . And say besides, that in
Where a malignant and a turban'd Turk
Beat a Venetian and traduced the state,
I took by the throat the circumcised dog,
And smote him, thus.
That is, according to contemporary ideas, Islam already was in the world, since some kind of "circumcised dog" in a turban fought with the
Meanwhile, still rather recently (in historical measurements) the military personnel of many countries have worn the turban. And circumcision,
as it will be shown in our book, is a most complex phenomenon, which is
characteristic at a definite stage for all
of human culture.
Thus it is impossible to understand who
Othello is regarding faith, and it is not clear why he calls the Turk a dog.
But it is not worth accusing
Shakespeare of a mistake. Not only he, but also the English in general
up to the 17th century did not mention anywhere in written
sources the words:
"Moslem, Islam, Koran,
minaret, muezzin, hijra, Caaba." The full impression is that they did not know
them. But you know, the sons of an obscure
already had visited all the corners of the world and should have known them.
No, these words clearly were unknown
to William Shakespeare as well as to both Francis Bacon and other great
Englishmen of that era.
They are unknown also to the Italian writer Giraldi Cinthio, upon whose novella the "Moor of Venice" (the "Hecatommithi" collection or "One
1566) Shakespeare created his masterpiece.
So, perhaps, there still was not an Islam?
The riddle of Othello grows into one of the cardinal questions connected with medieval times, when modern nations, states and religions were
Our book is devoted to this era. Scientific
facts are collected in it that prove that now the predominant historical
science is Utopian. It was built on
false premises and an artificially constructed chronology. There is a multitude
of evidence of the fact that all "ancient" manuscripts are literary works of
the 15th - 16th
centuries and that there never was in reality any "ancient"
as historical science teaches us.
We have collected the conclusions of dozens of
scientists from various countries that the most ancient monuments of mankind,
the pyramids of
, were erected in the period between the 11 and 18th
centuries of our era.
The processing of written sources on a computer, with a
comparative analysis of their authenticity, and the other newest methods of the
study of history, which were found by the scientists, allows the contention
in the 13 - 14th centuries
of our era, the first world war in history broke out. It ended with the
formation of a colossal empire with a capital in
, which at that time was called
Its territory included a large
Asia, all of the civilized regions of
There is basis to say that the
Aztec civilization also was included in the Empire's composition.
subjects named their country
and practiced a religion which approximately is set forth in the Old Testament.
They named their faith catholic.
Having existed for 70-80 years, the empire broke up. The violent creation of states began and the formation of peoples and nations in the modern
meaning of these words.
An objective political need arose for the writing of one's
own history, in comparison with a history common and characteristic for an
empire. It was necessary to find or to create the proper historical roots,
one's own antiquity, which was not the same as the antiquity of the neighbors.
In which connection, the more deeply these roots went into the centuries, the
more legitimate those or the other rulers looked in the eyes of the subjects.
It was as if their authority was sanctified by the centuries.
And then the primary framework of modern historiography
A hunt was launched for
manuscripts which were declared as ancient. The main body of sources on the
history of antiquity appeared over only 2 centuries - the 15th and 16th.
How this happened is well known
not only to critics of traditional historiography, but also to the
The ancient manuscripts appeared according to a
scheme which is well seen in the example of one of the brightest forgers of
that time, Poggio Bracciolini. He, an author of historical and moralistic
books, was in the full sense of the word the dominant influence of his century.
Many found it possible to define
the first half of the Italian 15th Century as Poggio's century.
raised a statue to him, which was carved by the sculpture Donatello.
With the cooperation of the Florentine scholar and book collector Niccolo Niccoli, Poggio Bracciolini established a kind of permanent study of
ancient literature and attracted a whole series of collaborators and partners
to the business.
Poggio Bracciolini and Bartolomeo di Montepulciano made thefirst of their "finds" in the era of the Council of
In a forgotten, damp tower of the St. Gall monastery, in which a prisoner would not survive even three days, they chanced "to find" safe and
sound a heap of ancient manuscripts:
essays by Quintilian, Valerius
Flaccus, Asconius Pedianus, Nonius Marcellus, Probus and others.
After some time,
Bracciolini supposedly discovered fragments "from Petronius" and "the Bucolics"
Poggio's clients were the Medici, the aristocratic families of
, the House of the Dukes of Burgundy, Cardinal Orsini,
Colonus, the wealthy such as Bartholomeo de
Bardis, and universities.
He became very rich on "ancient"
would think it was impossible to forge archaeological finds. But one can find
just that which is needed and there where it is needed.
The excavations of
began in 1711, and in 1748, the excavations at
They bore an advertising and
There was no discussion of any
scientific research. The first excavations in
were made by the English "Society of Amateurs" in 1743-1751. It was as it was
called - a society of amateurs, and it is not suitable to speak about the
scientific level of the excavations. But even this is not the main thing. The
archaeological expeditions which followed purposefully destroyed all the
discoveries that contradicted the established views on history. In the best
case, they declared them as erroneous.
Sculptors also created a supposedly ancient history.
The facts are well known when some
of them buried statues of their own creation in the ground and several years
later informed the world about the fact that they found in their own vegetable
gardens the imperishable works of the ancient masters .
The history of
is full of distortions and fictions.
For political and many other
reasons, legends were constructed of the Tatar Mongolian yoke in Russia and the
centuries old struggle with the Huns in China.
Both that and the other are simply
And so, we shall try to explain in
the pages of this book what it was in fact and why the Great Wall was built in
in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Thehigh-minded direction of
traditional European history was developed in the 16th-17th centuries, in the
era of the Reformation and the Counter-reformation.
The slogan of Nicolo Machiavelli, "The end justifies the means" and the
appeal of Martin Luther, "He who is not with us is against us" became the main
principles of the greatest historians of that time. The originator of the
modern chronology, Joseph Scaliger (Bordone), brought up by his philosopher
father in the spirit of "paper will endure all, provided that it is beautiful,"
Henry IV Bourbon's court chronicler, was right after his master first a
Catholic, then a Huguenot.
He composed a "continuous"
chronology of the French royal dynasties, in order to legitimatize and
perpetuate the rights of the Bourbons, who had destroyed the previous
All the rest of world history was
called up only to serve as a background for this purpose.
Austrian Cuspinian (Johann Spiesheimer) carried out the
for the Hapsburgs, deriving their uninterrupted genealogy from Julius Caesar.
The history of
in the editions of the father and son lords-chancellor Bacon became the most
"pseudo-scientific," which were provided moreover with brilliant "PR" in the
form of Shakespeare's narrative plays.
The peaceful unification of
under the crown of the new Scottish dynasty of the Stuarts predetermined also
an "uninterrupted legitimate" history of the dynastic replacement of Scottish
rulers over 1,200 years.
Roman Catholic Church, which was alarmed by the
preservation of its political influence, took in the
process of the creation of a pseudo-scientific
"worldwide secular" history the most active
participation, in particular, in the person of the
Jesuit monk, Dionysius Petavius.
The adoption itself
in Europe of a modern chronology by a decision of the
1563 Council of Trent became an important turning
this year was it declared that it was coming up on namely 1,563 years since the
birth of Christ, and all sources which contradicted this were ordered to be
At the same time, the "Book of
Popes" also appeared which recorded somehow the uninterrupted succession of the
Roman Popes from the 4th through the 9th centuries (to Pope Nicholas I.)
Even business created a modern historical
From the middle of the 15th
century, by the efforts most of all of the Florentine Medici bankers, history
became the object of an extremely profitable business - starting from "holy
relics" and ending with "ancient manuscripts."
The most glaring example is the
"Donation of Constantine," the forgery of which Lorenzo Valla proved right in
the middle of the 15th century.
this time an important event in civilization occurs -
the appearance of printing, which stimulates the
unsatisfied market demand for books.
Well, and there where demand is,
there also are supplies. An abundance of just discovered "ancient" manuscripts
and chronicles becomes the most widespread. .
As a rule, they stop suddenly "somewhere in
antiquity." A typical example is the chronicle of the Saxon Grammatica, which
breaks off in 1185 and is discovered in 1514.
This chronicle also was fixed into
the foundation of the history of the
A certain Gall Anonim wrote a
similar "ancient Polish" chronicle
that ranges to 1113, and it was discovered in that very same 16th century.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, their own chronicler appeared in every European monarchy.
is necessary to the prince of such that it allows him to most effectively rule
his people," thus the founder of political science, Niccolo Machiavelli
formulated a thesis which defines even today the relationship of authority to
Up to now, very rarely is the research of
history free from political sympathies and antipathies and the wish that it not
begin to play up in a positive sense the role and significance of the people
among whom the researchers count themselves.
Thus, the brilliant Russian mathematician and revisionist
historian, Anatoly Fomenko, attaches all development of civilization to Slavic
roots, and the Turkic writer M. Agaji - to Turkic.
The Western historians Otto Rahn,
Guido von List and many others have gone along the very same path.
Book authors suppose such an approach is in error.
They stand in that position, that still very recently,
several centuries ago, people did not consider themselves either Turks or
Russian, or Jews or French, nothing again in the present meaning of these
existed a period when they were not divided in creed, inasmuch as being the
subjects of one empire, they professed one and the same religion -
Protojudiasm became a starting position for the creation of
worldwide religions - of the main driving force in mankind's spiritual life for
the centuries ahead.
And this book, relying on the evidence of the past and
those reconstructions which the critics of traditional historiography suggest
today, speak of the empire and its ideology.